The other name for Crouzon syndrome is bronchial arch syndrome. As the name signifies the disease affects the bronchial or pharyngeal arch of the body. This is certainly genetic disorder which begins during the developmental stages of the embryo. Any disturbance to the bronchial arch will cause serious consequences in the physical features of the child.
As said earlier, Crouzon syndrome is purely a genetic disorder and hence some mutations in the growth factor cause this disorder. There are certain fibroblasts growth factors (FGFR) present in the individuals. Some changes occur in the fibroblast factor causing Crouzon syndrome in the child. Since the disease is hereditary, the child born to the carrier of crouzon syndrome will have 50% chance to inherit this disorder. This disorder is said to be present in 1 in every 60,000 births.
Most of the child born with Crouzon syndrome will have craniofacial abnormalities during birth. Many cases with this disorder will have impaired mental functions. Due to the increased cranial pressure the patient will have severe headaches and blurring vision. The cornea may be affected due to conjunctivitis and may cause serious problem with vision. The patients are often deaf due to the stenosis of the ear canal. Shortly after the birth, cranial synostosis is seen before the completion of first year or second year. The nose of the child may be in the form of beak due to compressed nasal passage. The teeth will be overcrowded on the upper row and in some cases you can see V-shaped dental arch. The ear canal is narrow or entirely absent.
The doctor can diagnose the illness by looking at the child due to the presence of notable features. The head may be short or broad, eyes are bulging and prominent in the face and the nose is somewhat beak shaped. The thigh bones are shorter when compared with other bones of the body unlike healthy individuals.
Several surgeons will have to work together for treating the child with Crouzon syndrome. Surgery is needed to close the sutures of the skull and without which the child may develop blindness. A plastic surgeon will work for correcting the facial features which is called craniofacial surgery. Further they would perform surgery for moving the lower orbit for removing mid-face deficiency. For straightening the tooth maxillofacial surgeon will have to operate on the child. However the surviving child has to wear a cranial band (customary helmet) for many months after surgery for closing the sutures of the skull